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Tuesday, December 1

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Sunday, November 15

  1. page Cnidaria edited ... 1. Class Hydrozoa: (includes Hydra, Obelia, fire corals) Have unpartitioned guts and contain …
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    1. Class Hydrozoa: (includes Hydra, Obelia, fire corals)
    Have unpartitioned guts and contain a shelf-like structure called the vellum at the base of the bell (as medusa)
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    (Class Hydrozoa) (5 HL)
    2. Class Scyphozoa: (true(most true jellies)
    Has a gut divided into four parts and lack a vellum (as medusa). Scyphozoa also have rhopalia, sensory organs that can detect light, provide a sense of gravity, and allow for taste of chemicals dissolved in water. Some open-ocean scyphozoans lack the polyp stage of development since there are no surfaces on which to anchor themselves.
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    (Class Scyphozoa) (5 HL)
    3. Class Anthozoa: (includes sea anemones, true corals, and soft corals)
    The gut is divided into more than four sections. Anthozoans lack the medusa stage in their life cycles.
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    (Class Anthozoa) (5 HL)
    4. Class Cubomedusa: (such as box(box jellyfish)
    This class contains medusae with cube shaped bells, and includes some of the most venomous living organisms.
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    (Class Cubomedusa) (5 HL)
    Acquisition and Digestion of food
    All cnidarians are carnivores. They use arrays of cnidocytes on the tentacles surrounding their mouths to sting and capture prey. Cnidocytes contain cnidae, sack-like organelles which flip inside-out and attach a harpoon to any object in range. {http://www.undersea.com.au/corals/images/nematocysts.gif} Nematocyst before and after firing Nematocysts inject powerful venom to immobilize and kill prey, while other types of cnidocytes have longer threads that stick to or entangle prey. Cnidocytes contain triggers which can be activated by either touch or chemical signals. The cnidarian itself does not trigger stinging cells to fire of communicate witht he cells; the cells do it on their own, according to their own stimuli (JE).
    (view changes)
    8:39 pm
  2. page Cnidaria edited ... Symmetry is common among members of the Kingdom Animalia, and cnidarians are no exception. How…
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    Symmetry is common among members of the Kingdom Animalia, and cnidarians are no exception. However, rather than the bilateral symmetry shared by arthropods and chordates, cnidarians have radial symmetry. Instead of a central line of symmetry, Cnidarians have a point of symmetry in the center of their bodies. Any feature on one side of this point is identical to a feature on the opposite side.
    {http://www.geo.arizona.edu/geo3xx/geo308_fall2002/10Reefs&corals_files/image010.jpg} Cnidarian Morphology: Polyp vs. Medusa
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    themselves to thetheir substratum. A
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    have a coelenteron, a sac-like body space also known as the gastrovascular cavity (digestive compartment),(where gas exchange and digestion occur), the only
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    (making them dioplastic (EG 12)):dioplastic): the epidermis-
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    colloquially named). The body surrounds the coelenteron, a sac-like body space also known as the gastrovascular cavity (where gas exchange and digestion occur), which is directly connected to it's surroundings through the mouth (EG 12). This basic
    The most defining characteristic of the phylum Cnidaria- the one for which it is named- is the development of cnidocytes, cells uniquely specialized for defense and the capture of prey. A cnidocyte will contain a cnida, an evertible capsule-like organelle. Cnidocytes specialized for stinging are called nematocysts. If an organism has cnidocytes, it is a cnidarian (the name of this phylum comes from the Greek word for nettle: cnide).
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    classes of Cnidarians (KA):Cnidarians:
    1. Class Hydrozoa: (includes Hydra, Obelia, fire corals)
    HasHave unpartitioned guts
    {http://z.about.com/d/animals/1/5/E/U/fower-hat-jellyfish.jpg} Olindias formosa (Class Hydrozoa) (5 HL)
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    Class Scyphozoa: (most common example is the Aurelia)(true jellies)
    Has a
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    in water. Some open-ocean scyphozoans lack the polyp stage of development since there are no surfaces on which to anchor themselves.
    {http://www.aquariumofpacific.org/images/olc/wcjelly5leonard.jpg} Sea Nettles (Class Scyphozoa) (5 HL)
    3. Class Anthozoa: (includes sea anemones, true corals, and soft corals)
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    than four sections andsections. Anthozoans lack alternation of generations, alternation between the two body plans (medusa and polyp).medusa stage in their life cycles.
    {http://www.tropicarium.se/images/koraller.jpg} Sea anemone (Class Anthozoa) (5 HL)
    4. Class Cubomedusa: (such as box jellyfish)
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    class contains medusasmedusae with cube shaped bells, which act asand includes some of
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    most venomous of all sea creatures.living organisms.
    {http://thestashbox.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/226boxjellyfish1.jpg} Box jellyfish (Class Cubomedusa) (5 HL)
    Acquisition and Digestion of food
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    8:30 pm
  3. page Gymnosperms edited ... By: Evan Kendall {http://images.flowers.vg/1024x768/tree-pinecone.jpg} Pine cone (4 HL) D…
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    By: Evan Kendall
    {http://images.flowers.vg/1024x768/tree-pinecone.jpg} Pine cone
    (4 HL)
    Diagnostic Characteristics of Gymnosperms:
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    modern-day gymnosperm diversity.(23RM)diversity. Gymnosperms were
    {Phylogeny_of_GS.gif}
    Habitats of Gymnosperms:
    Gymnosperms, primarily conifers, tend to live in the Northern Hemisphere and are found mostly in forests. For example, one type of a Gymnosperm is the Redwood, which is found only in a small coastal piece of Northern California. Another type of Gymnosperm, the Bristlecone pines, is found in California as well, and is considered to be one of the oldest organisms alive.
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    with little water (DPOD 6).water. The conifers
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    gymnosperm group. (16 SC)
    Major Types of Gymnosperms:
    Gymnosperms are only composed of four different phyla. These consist of:
    -Phylum Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo)
    {http://www.biologyreference.com/images/biol_02_img0159.jpg}
    (EG)
    -Phylum Cycadophyta (Cycads)
    {http://www.crescent.k12.ok.us/staff/jaskew/ISR/botzo/cycad.gif} (EG)
    -Phylum Gnetophyta (Gnetae)
    {http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/botf99/gynopsperms/gnetfolder/ephedrafol/gnetum.jpg} (EG)
    -Phylum Coniferophyta (Conifers)
    {http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/images/content/156030main_Conifers_JPG.jpg} (EG)
    The

    The
    most common
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    extremely cold conditions (CS 16).conditions. Conifers use
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    the plant. (15 VK) Conifer trees
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    the stem. (15 VK) Pine trees
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    species of gymnosperm (EK9).gymnosperm.
    Aside from
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    to Mediterranean climates) (3 KA).climates). Cycads, from
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    to livestock. (15 VK) Phylum Gnetophyta
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    ancestral to angiosperms (8 J Stein).angiosperms.
    A Gymnosperm consists of three major parts: the seed coat, the food supply, and the embryo. The seed coat is the outer layer of the seed that protects the contents inside, otherwise known as the embryo. The food supply provides nourishment and support for the embryo, and the embryo is the new sporophyte forming. See the picture below for a better description of the anatomy of a Gymnosperm.
    {Seed_GS.gif}
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    {second_stage_of_gymno.jpg} The inside of a female cone, where each scale of the cone bears two megasporangia, or ovules. Each single cell undergoes meiosis to produce four megasporangia.
    {third_stage_of_gyno.jpg} Egg cells in the female gametophyte. (AS 22)
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    of reproduction. (2 AW)
    The Environmental Adaptations for the Gymnosperm:
    Gymnosperms have undergone a few environmental adaptations in order to survive and reproduce more productively. One of these adaptations is that the sperm cells in some Gymnosperms retain the flagellated condition, which traces back to the ancestors of Gymnosperms, yet most of the Gymnosperms now have adapted to not have the flagella in the sperm. The reason that the flagella is not in most Gymnosperm sperm is because it allows reproduction to occur outside of the plant which means that there will be a greater diversity of plants on land.
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    water to leave (17T2).leave. Some of
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    from the leaves (JE).leaves. Some conifers
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    to fire. (AR 19)
    The Environmental Adaptations for the Gymnosperm:
    Review Questions
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    think seed) (CH)
    2) What
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    it use? (8 AL)
    3)What is
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    phylum of gymnosperms?Listgymnosperms? List two characteristics of this phylum.(6DO)phylum.
    4) Describe
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    to reproduce? (SW 9)
    5. What
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    with angiosperms? (18 AN)
    6) In
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    what fitness-improving characters (MB)?characters?
    7) Gymnosperms
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    most gymnosperms? (J.Sun 14)
    8) What
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    cone called? (16 DC)
    Resources:
    1) Campbell, Neil A, and Jane B. Reece. Biology. Sixth Edition. San Fransisco: Pearson Education, Inc, 2002.
    (view changes)
    1:57 pm

Wednesday, November 11

  1. page Chordata-2 Invertebrate Phyla edited ... In the process of digestion and food intake, the pharyngeal slits, located posterior to the mo…
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    In the process of digestion and food intake, the pharyngeal slits, located posterior to the mouth, function in suspension feeding in invertebrate chordates. In more complex vertebrates, the pharyngeal slits evolved over time to function for gas exchange, mandible support, hearing, and other functions.
    The postanal tail, containing skeletal muscles and elements, allows aquatic chordates to propel themselves forward and provide a mechanism for locomotion.
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    of free-floating tunicates. (22RM)tunicates.)
    Tunicates are commonly called sea squirts and also known as ascidians. Each tunicate resembles a bulging sac in the shape of a U. They are sessile marine creatures, signifying that they are permanently fixed to their respective surfaces, i.e. rocks, docks, and boats. Tunicates that are not attached to some substrate are known as Thaliaceans, gelatinous animals that use their siphons to jet-propel themselves through the water. Each tunicate is enveloped in an outer layer made out of celluloselike carbohydrate. Tunicates also display pharyngeal slits that function in the suspension feeding of the organism. However, there is no trace of a notochord, a nerve cord, or a tail, which stand as distinguishing characteristics of a chordate. Although all chordate traits are clearly observed on the tunicate larvae, most traits save the pharyngeal traits are unseen on the adult tunicates.
    Lancelets, on the other hand, were named for their sharp weapon shape and their structure more closely identifies with the structure of an ideal chordate. This is due to the fact that the notochord, nerve cord, gill slits, and postanal tail all remain in the adult stage of the lancelet. Lancelets display tentacles and can grow up to approximately 5 cm in length and live in the sandy bottoms of coastal regions. Their numbers are relatively small but they live in certain places at huge densities, over 5,000 lancelets per square meter!
    {lancelet.gif} Basic structure of a lancelet
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    a tunicate (AR 7)
    Sensing the Environment
    Though sessile on a stationary surface, tunicates contain notable sensory organs. These include eyespots to detect light as well as otoliths, or structures composed of calcium carbonate that help tunicates orient to the pull of gravity.Otoliths are also used by maring biologists to determine the age of an organism. The Otolith itself forms chemically different rings each year, like the rings on a tree, and interpretations of these rings can determine an organism's age. Otoliths are also found in fish.
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    Circulation
    Tunicates have an open circulatory system that contains no vessels. Instead, blood flows through spaces and channels within the tissue, as well as channels that pass through the gills. Arteries, veins, and capillaries are absent from the circulatory system; however, in place of a heart, a tube and its walls contract to force blood through it.
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    a microscope (DPOD 10)
    As lancelets are much more closely related to modern-day chordates that tunicates are, lancelets share similar characteristics of a closed circulatory system. Instead of a heart, lancelets contain large blood vessels that expand and contract to move oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. The veins of the lancelet transfer blood to the gills, where the blood is replenished with fresh oxygen. The urochordata have main ventral and paired dorsal aorta. Their blood lacks hemoglobin and contains no color.
    Osmotic Balance
    (view changes)
    2:41 pm
  2. page Angiosperms edited Plantae- ANGIOSPERMS Daniel “Seed Pod” Podlisny {file:///Users/marcia/Library/Caches/Temporar…
    Plantae- ANGIOSPERMS
    Daniel “Seed Pod” Podlisny
    {file:///Users/marcia/Library/Caches/TemporaryItems/moz-screenshot.png} {chap36-opener.jpg} A Deciduous forest of Angiosperms
    DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERISTICS
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    <http://www.biologyreference.com/A-Ar/Angiosperms.html>.
    6) "Angiosperms." Nature Works. 31 Oct 2009. <http://www.nhptv.org/NATUREWORKS/nwep14f.htm>
    Page,7) Page, Alex. "Monocots
    Http:i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/5398216/361217_Full.jpg. Web. 24 Oct. 2009. <http://i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/5398216/361217_Full.jpg>.
    "Angiosperms."8) "Angiosperms." Http:www.wikipedia.com//. Web.
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    2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiosperms.
    Morales,

    9) Morales,
    Elizabeth. http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/booksellers/press_release/studentscience/gif/xylem1.gif
    Nepokroeff,

    10) Nepokroeff,
    Molly and
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    Elizabeth. http://www.biologyreference.com/A-Ar/Angiosperms.html

    (view changes)
    1:41 pm

Tuesday, November 10

  1. page Platyhelminthes edited Platyhelminthes- Flatworms ... Prostheceraeus giesbrechtii ( 4 AL) Platyhelminthes is a ph…

    Platyhelminthes- Flatworms
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    Prostheceraeus giesbrechtii ( 4 AL)
    Platyhelminthes is a phylum of the kingdom Animalia. There are approximately 20,000 different species, of which the majority are parasitic. They live in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial environments. Platyhelminthes can be divided into four classes:
    1) Turbellaria- tubellarians (nonparasitic)
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    few are parasitic (CH 2).parasitic.
    2) Monogenea- Monogeans
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    their primary host (2 KA).host.
    3) Trematoda- trematodes/ flukes
    Trematodes/flukes are mainly endoparasitic (live within another organism).
    4) Cestodian- tapeworms
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    parasites in vertebrates (CH 2).vertebrates.
    Diagnostic Characteristics
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    the dorsal (back [JE])(back) and ventral (stomach [JE])(stomach) surfaces. They
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    a mouth. (21 VK) They also
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    digestive system. (21 VK)
    Flatworms
    Flatworms are triptoblastic,
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    of longitudinal fibers (12 JSun).fibers. Flatworms do
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    a head region (EG).region.
    The following
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    characteristics of flatworms (SW 11):flatworms:
    Characteristic
    Platyhelminthes
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    Specialized respiratory system
    No
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    a flatworm (1 AW) Acquiring and
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    of the body (19 DC).body. Since flatworms
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    into it. (21RM) Flatworms are
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    beef tapeworm. (EK4)
    Sensing the Environment
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    or sense light (CS 20).light.
    {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/SAMMYS%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/moz-screenshot.jpg} {platyh5.gif}
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    the environment (JE) {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/SAMMYS%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/moz-screenshot-1.jpg}
    Locomotion
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    assist with movement (EG).movement.
    Respiration
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    moist terrestrial habitats (1 MB).habitats.
    Metabolic Waste Removal
    Platyhelminthes also have a simple excretory system. Ammonia is excreted directly through their skin by diffusion.
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    a "flame cell" (SW 11).cell". Flame cells
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    out waste products (SW 11).products.
    Circulation
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    occurs through diffusion (SW 11).diffusion.
    Reproduction
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    present in flatworms (5 JStein).flatworms. Flatworms lay
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    stage with cilia (DPOD 18).cilia. {http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_biology_6/cipl/stu/46/46-06-FlatwormReproAnat-L.jpg} Platyhelminthes reproduction system (2 DO)
    Self Protection
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    of amputation. (11 AS)
    {flatworm_regeneration.jpg} The results of a failed feeding attempt by most probably a fish. But this flatworm's not crying; the wound will close up and the part will be regenerated in no time!
    Osmotic Balance
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    or isomotic. (EK)
    Review Questions
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    respiratory systems? (12t222)
    2. How
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    waste removal? (AR 9)
    3. What
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    composed of? (21 AN)
    4. Describe
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    and digest food (20 SC).food.
    Sources
    Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology, Sixth Edition. Sixth ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2001. Print.
    (view changes)
    2:27 pm

Monday, November 9

  1. page Cnidaria edited ... Sensing the Environment Cnidarians have a primordial but elegant sensory system. Primitive se…
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    Sensing the Environment
    Cnidarians have a primordial but elegant sensory system. Primitive sensory receptors are distributed radially around the body, and relay electrochemical signals to a noncentralized nerve net (cnidarians do not have brains). Therefore, even though their sensations are not nearly as detailed as those of most vertebrates, cnidarians can detect and respond to stimuli from every direction.
    ...
    the extracellular step of transmission.transmission step. Neurons joined
    Locomotion
    Cnidarians in their polyp form are sessile- meaning that they do not locomote. They remain stationary on their stratum and must wait for their resources to come to them.
    ...
    10) "Cnidarians." 31 Oct. 2009 http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761562576_2/Cnidarians.html11) "Jellyfish Cam" 2 Nov. 2009 <http://www.aquarium.org/jellies/amatomy.htm>
    11) "Nematocysts." The JelliesZone - Jellyfish & Other Gelatinous Zooplankton//. Web. 06 Nov. 2009. <http://jellieszone.com/nematocysts.htm>.
    12) "Cnidaria." Wikipedia.com. Web. 9 Nov. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria#cite_note-RuppertBarnes2004CnidariaGeneral-4>.
    13) "Gap Junction." Wikipedia.com. Web. 9 Nov. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gap_junction#Neurons>.

    Pictures:
    Picture 1:
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    7:49 pm

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